Character and Achievements of Omar bin Abdul Aziz Khalifa Omar bin Abdul

Character and Achievements of Omar bin Abdul Aziz Khalifa Omar bin Abdul

Character and Achievements of Omar bin Abdul Aziz Khalifa Omar bin Abdul

He was a devout and kind caliph. Fascinated by his character traits, historians have compared him to the caliphs of Khulafa Rashedin and called him the "fifth caliph" or caliph of Islam. He was a simple, unpretentious, just, dutiful, religious, tolerant, prudent and neutral caliph. Among the Umayyads, he was the only caliph who received only 2 dirhams a day from the state treasury to support himself and his family. Honesty, he was the only one among the Umayyad caliphs who were greedy, pompous, power-hungry and drunk. Symbol of neutrality, simplicity and purity. In each case, they have seized it, despite obstacles we can scarcely imagine. " So he used all his power to spread Islam. Because of these qualities, the Abbasid Caliph Assaffah desecrated the graves of all the Umayyads, but did not do so in the tomb of Omar II. He gained a reputation as a friend of the poor. 

Historian Amir Ali said

Unaffected piety, a keen sense of justice, unswerving uprightness, moderation and an almost primitive simplicity of life formed the chief features in his character." That is to say, "genuine religiosity, sharp judgment, unwavering ethics, tolerance and simplicity were the main features of his character." The Umayyads did not like the strict policy and neutral rule introduced by Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz. The Umayyads understand that power and prestige for his policy will soon be lost. So in order to escape from the hands of the caliph, the Umayyads bribed and enslaved a slave in the service of the caliph. The caliph was poisoned. As a result, in the middle of 101 AH at a place called 'Dayar Siman' near Hims Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz died. Although there are many successful aspects of his regime

Hitti said, "Though inspired by the best of intentions, Umar's policy was not successful "Despite the lofty intentions, Omar's policy has not been successful. Despite some criticism, his regime is encouraging. And demands the critical significance of success. During his reign, internal grievances were completely eradicated. He gave more importance to the organizational system instead of military strategy.

"The military organization of Omar I had already done its task before the reign of Omar Il. Under the caliphate of Walid, Arab conquest had reached limits which could no longer be extender or over stepped." According to Omar II, a just ruler is rare in history. But historians are second. Although Omar was highly praised, his simple-mindedness was detrimental to Umayyad society.

The caliphs of Rashedin in Khulafa are Ganatani

The clergy and rulers of Gothic Spain were Christians

Yazid bin Abdul Malik or Yazid(620-724 AD)

Character and Achievements of Omar bin Abdul Aziz Khalifa Omar bin Abdul

Omar bin Abdul Aziz or Yazid II, the third son of Caliph Abdul Malik, ascended the throne after his death. She married Hajjaj bin Yusuf's niece. He was an unjust and weak ruler. During his reign, the empire was in turmoil. At that time a revolt led by Yazid bin Muhallib broke out and in 620 AD the Caliph's forces engaged in a battle with Muhallib's forces on the south bank of the Euphrates River and Muhallib along with many Yazidi soldiers were killed.

During his reign the Himalayan-Mudari conflict escalated

The Lakers of the Abbasid dynasty also started a movement against the Umayyads at this time. But the caliph did not pay attention to the empire and spent time with wine, music, poetry, etc. Thus the second Yazid is something of four years. He died at the age of 40 after a long reign. The fall of the Umayyad dynasty from his reign The journey begins. Before his death, he succeeded his brother Hisham and his son Walid.

        Johra Palace

Johra Palace is a unique masterpiece of Abdur Rahman. At the request of his wife, Az-Zohra, construction began in October 938, at the foot of the Hill of He Bride, 3 miles north of  It had about 400 rooms. This palace was built by 10 thousand craftsmen at a cost of 5 lakh days. Round domes, cisterns, fountains, ivory, etc., all attracted the attention of the pearl-studded pillars and the exquisite design of the wooden rim, marble and crystal stone. At the entrance of the palace was a sculpture of Empress Az-Zohra. P. K. Hitti compared the palace to other palaces in Europe at the time, saying, "The Caliph's court at that time was one of the most glamorous in all of Europe." * ° were 2 for

The Leaders of the United Front like Fazlul Haque

The Economic inequality towards East Pakistan was the most important

Finally it can be said, when the internal gallantry

Chaos, the existence of Muslim Spain is endangered by the onslaught of external enemies, just at that moment Abdur Rahman III came to power and overcame all disasters with infinite courage, extraordinary heroism, governance and political wisdom. Historian Lenpool said, "And he had not only saved her from destruction, he had made her great and happy." For these reasons he is called the Savior of Spain.

Palace The city had 50,000 cars for elite communities and royalty, 10,000,000 homes for the public, 600 mosques, 900 taverns, 70 libraries, and numerous bookstores. The picturesque palace built by Abdur Rahman III in Cordoba to commemorate his wife Johra is considered one of the most amazing things in the world. Marble stones are collected from different parts of the world for this palace. Just as Cordoba was incomparable in terms of beauty, so was Cordoba's contribution to education and science. Historian Lenpool said the seat of knowledge, science, literature, art, and all kinds of taste and good education.

Among the subjects Cordova was famous for imparting knowledge were literature, history, geography, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy. The famous poet Ibn Abdul Bari, the eminent historian Abu Bakr bin Omar Ibn Hayyan, the famous geographer Al-Bakri, the mathematician and Salmai, the famous Jyotirbin Bitruji, the greatest medical scientist of the Muslim world Ibn Abbas Al-Hajra and the Muslim Spaniard were born in Spain. During the Umayyad rule, significant progress in the economic system. Agriculture was the economic standard of the Muslims of Spain at that time. The Muslims skillfully solved the basic problems related to water supply. They also invented irrigators for irrigation. 

A movement was formed for the purpose of protection

sanctity of Medina was destroyed

natural mineral resources

Which helped to increase the industrial production of and accelerate industrialization. Muslim Spain gained fame in the industries of leather, fur, textiles, glass, iron, metal products, etc. The roads in are greatly expanded. Rapid shipping systems were established in the Mediterranean. As a result, many places in Spain became seaports. The Fall of Muslim Spain After the death of Abdur Rahman III, his worthy son Hakam II ruled from 981-96 AD. His period is called the Augustine period in Spain. The Umayyad Caliphate, founded by Abdur Rahman III, lasted till the time of Hisham III (1031 AD). Subsequently, small kingdoms emerged in Spain. 

Notable among them were

1. Banu Hammud (Malaga and Al-Jesiras) 1010-1056 AD 

2. Slavic rule (Almeria, Murcia and Denia) 1013-11115 AD 

3. Banuhud (Saragasa) 1010-117 AD 

4. Boon du Al-Nun (Toleda) 1035-1085 AD 

5. Banu Abbas (Seville) 1023-1091 AD.

Causes of the Fall of Muslim Spain. The smallest ethnic groups in Spain were mainly Yemenis, Syrians, Sudanese, Himalayas, and Barbarians. The internal strife between them helps to fall. Second, the post-Hakam rulers were weak. There was also disunity in their armies, which led to their downfall.

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