The features of the Umayyad Empire

The features of the Umayyad Empire

The features of the Umayyad Empire

Mourning of Los-Ush-Shura Mourning of Majlis-Ush-Shura was one of the features of the Umayyad Empire. During Poy Rashedin, caliphs were democratically elected through Majlis-e-Ush-Shura. Even the final and all other urgent matters are decided by the Majlis-Ush-Shura. The people had the right to criticize government policy and freedom of expression as it was an impediment to the establishment of Majlis-e-Usharat and dictatorship. But as soon as Muawiyah (ra) came to power as the caliph, he made peace with the Majlis-e-Ush-Shura; As a result, the royal court replaced the Majlis-Ush-Shura. Swabhanshi and pre-party chiefs. Ellen is the head of this council, where public opinion has no value. 


Baitulmal turned into private property

Baitulmal was the property of the people during the reign of Khulafa Rashedin. In this. The common people had equal rights to society. The right of the caliphs over the Baitulmal. Was not. The caliphs were its protectors. In running the state, the state money is spent on public works. Umayya. Caliph Muawiyah (ra) came to power and turned Baitulmal into the private property of the royal family. With the exception of Omar bin Abdul Aziz, known as the fifth caliph of Islam, everyone used to spend Baitulmal on his family's luxuries as he wished.


Gaetriya strife resurfaced

In pre-Islamic Arabia, racism and Gaetarika strife was a daily occurrence. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) formed the Islamic state and strictly suppressed all racism and sectarian strife. The four caliphs of Rashedin followed the teachings of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) thoroughly. But Muawiyah (ra) himself. He revived the past animosity of their power struggle by setting fire to the ashes of vengeance, especially among the Mudaris (Hejaji Arabs) and the Himaaris (Yemeni Arabs). On the other hand, the anti-Hashemite activities of the Umayyad rulers revived the old Umayyad-Hashemite conflict and took a terrible shape. 



By Establishment of ethnic supremacy 

Islam is the religion of peace and the religion of humanity. This religion teaches world brotherhood. The founder of this great ideology of Islam was Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) the messenger of liberation of world humanity. In his time, instead of ethnic predominance, people were assigned to government jobs according to their merits and merits. Although this trend continued during the reign of Khulafa Rashedin, the emphasis was on ethnic supremacy during the Umayyad period. The appointment of Arab Muslims to a higher monarchy would have been an understatement. But non-Arab Muslims were given jobs according to their merits. | No. According to historian Wellhausen, "the Umayyad caliphate was formed by the Arabs and for the Arabs. The Arabs formed the ruling party and monopolized political power and economic advantage. Capital transfers and the dominance of Medina; Muawiyah is in power.


Palam dominates Pap: Syrians are all for bringing Muawiyah to power. Helped and supported. After gaining power, Muawiyah moved the capital from Kufa to Damascus to show his sympathy for the Syrians. As a result, Medina, the heart of Islam, lost its dominance, while Damascus's dominance increased and the Syrians became omnipotent. Historian Joseph Hale said, "Since then, Medina has lost its status as a center of Islamic learning and religious enlightenment, and as the sun sets in Medina, so does the true Islam of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

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Luxurious life and un-Islamic activities 
The features of the Umayyad Empire

Despite possessing a huge empire, the caliphs of Khulafa Rashedin lived a very ordinary and unpretentious life. They were very simple, unpretentious and true followers of the customs, ideas, and ideals of the Prophet (peace be upon him). They were always engaged in the welfare of the people. But The Umayyad caliphs abandoned the unpretentious way of life of the caliphs of the Islamic military era and kept busy. They set up glamorous palaces and houses.

He lived a luxurious life by setting up glamorous palaces and houses. In society Horse racing etc. are reintroduced. Various un-Islamic activities contaminate the social life of Muslims. Historian von Kramer said, “The caliph That's it. 

Historian von Kramer said: "Luxury is out of control in the court of the caliphs. This situation was clearly the complete opposite of the simple way of life of the first caliphs. 

Autocratic attitude: The Umayyad rulers deviated from the great ideals of Islam and ruled arbitrarily. With the establishment of the monarchy, they are accountable to the people for their actions. Was not. Due to this they gradually became dictatorial and cruel rulers. He would not be so stingy as to be inhuman, cruel and authoritarian in order to fulfill his own desires. That is, it became the ruling class during the Umayyad period. Autocratic and uncontrolled.

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Suppression of the Syrian uprising

Fatimid rule in Syria was not consolidated during the rule of Caliph al-Mu'izz. As a result, al-Aziz has to face the Syrian problem by taking power. At that time, the rebel Karamatians of Syria joined forces with the Turkish leader Haftakin and ousted the Fatimid ruler from Damascus. This endangered the security of Egypt and the existence of the Fatimid dynasty. Al-Aziz, according to the previous caliphs, ordered an operation in Syria to ensure security in the east. With the help of ambitious Haftakin, Barbers and Karmatians


Architecture: Al-Aziz was particularly fond of architecture. During his time there was a great development of architecture. He built mosques, madrasas, bridges, roads, etc. throughout the caliphate. During his time, Al-Azhar Mosque was beautified. Construction of the Masjid-i-Jamir began during his reign, and was completed during the reign of the later Caliph al-Hakim. He built the famous mosque near the victory gate of the city of Cairo. The mosque is better known as Hakim's Mosque. Among its architectural masterpieces are the Golden Palace and the Ainshams Palace in Cairo. He spent a lot of money to decorate the palace. He also built his mother's mosque, Al-Hakam's mosque, etc. in a place called Muktamandap (Pear Pavillion) Karafa and glorified his reign.


Judiciary: Khalifa Al Aziz Fatimi is a historian who developed religious law and the judiciary. He appointed Mann's family in charge of the medicine and justice department. Ali bin Numan, son of Numan. During his time, he held the post of Chief Qazi. After Ali's death, his brother Muhammad bin Numan took over the post. Performs judicial duties.


Character: Professor O'Leary said, "Al-Aziz was elongated, with a wide neck, reddish hair, black complexion and large eyes. "He was the wisest and most beneficient of all the fatimid caliphs of Egypt. The unbroken peace wich the country." Al Aziz was the wisest and most useful of the Fatimid caliphs. There was uninterrupted peace in his empire. " The last phase of al-Aziz's rule: Byzantine forces frequently invade Syria under Fatimid rule. The situation worsened during the reign of Caliph al-Aziz. The Fatimid general Manzukin was defeated by the Byzantines on the Raqqa-Aleppo front. The Byzantine emperor himself led the army and captured many Syrian cities. Caliph Aziz himself led a large force and fell ill on the way. Died. With the death of Al-Aziz in 1996, the glory of the Fatimids began to fade. The Fatimids sought to bring North Africa and its trade routes under control by blocking the expansion of the state. As a result, the conflict between the Abbasids and the Fatimids became certain.


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