The gradual decline of the Abbasid Caliphate

The gradual decline of the Abbasid Caliphate

The gradual decline of the Abbasid Caliphate

Malik Ul Adil, the proletarian ruler, rose to prominence by fighting the Crusaders. Three after his death

The weak heir failed to recapture Jerusalem as he descended against the Crusaders who rescued him. By assassinating the last sultan of this dynasty, Turan Shah, in 1250 AD, the Mamluks put an end to the Ayub dynasty and established their authority. The Mamluks ruled from the capital Cairo to Egypt and Syria from 1250 to 1518 AD.


Decline and Fall of the Abbasids Development and Destruction — These three processes are the laws of nature. In the opinion of the individual, the word also applies to the dynasty. 650 Due to the weakness of the Umayyads, the Abbasid dynasty was established by As-Saffah. Ner stands face to face. The destruction of Baghdad in 1258 by the Mangal leader Halaku Khan resulted in Abbasi. The rule of society is extinguished. The reasons for the decline and fall of the Abbasid Caliphate are twofold. Can be done. Namely- 1. Internal causes and II. 

Arab Administrator Treasurer and Minister of Defense of the Umayyad Caliphate

As Muawiyah has been presented in different ways by different historians


External cause Internal Causes Historical Causes 

According to the eminent sociologist Ibn Khaldun (Al-Muqaddima), “Normally the Kona dynasty cannot maintain its vigor and valor for more than one hundred years. After that the fall began. According to the Umayyads, this cruel truth also applies to the Abbasids. Five hundred years (650-1256 AD). Although the Abbasid Caliphate was maintained, its glorious history extended to the period of Al-Wasik in 650-648 AD. "Al-Mutawakkil was the first caliph to fall," Hitti said.


Disqualification of caliphs


Mate ruled 36 rulers in the Abbasid dynasty, including Mansur, Mahdi, Harun and others. Mamun was powerful and possessed extraordinary governance skills. But the later caliphs were weak and ineffective. They indulged in luxuries and showed extreme indifference to the monarchy. In particular, the weakness of the caliphs after Caliph Almuntajid (692-902 AD) led to anarchy in the empire. 


Establishment of various independent states

In Baghdad, the capital of the vast Abbasid caliphate, it was not possible to take effective measures to suppress the insurgency in various places due to untimely arrival of news from the previous provinces. As a result, during the reign of Caliph Harun in 700 AD, the Aglabi dynasty in North Africa, the Tahiri dynasty of Khalifa Mamun (613-633 AD) and later Idrisiya, Samania, Buaid, Seljuk, Ayubi, Mamluk, Ghazni etc. became independent kingdoms. In this context P. K. Hitti said, "Even the rise, mushroom-like, of the numberless dynasties and quasi-dynasties in the heart of the caliphate and on its periphery was in itself a symptom of the disease rather than the case of it. As in The analogous case of the Roman Empire of the West, the sick man was already on his deathbed when the burglars burst open the doors and snatced their share of the imperial heritage.


51 That is to say, "the numerous dynasties that have sprung up under the umbrella of the frog were not the cause of the fall of the caliphate, they were signs of anger. With the fall of the Roman Empire in the West."

Some of it can be compared. When the caliphate is on its death bed, others do not try to save it from the empire Tradition is too busy to assert itself. "

La Omar bin Abdul Aziz (Omar ) (617-720 AD)

Military Campaign, Governance, Character and Achievement (61-70 AD)


Lack of specific rules in succession elections

From the very beginning, there were no specific rules for the election of rulers in the Abbasid Caliphate. Therefore, after the death of the caliph in Kona, in order to gain power, the successors resorted to heinous acts of self-contradiction, factionalism, conspiracy and even assassination. Harun's short-sightedness in particular led to a tragic civil war between Amin and Mamun (609-613 AD). Such suicidal activities run counter to the stability and solidarity of the empire and accelerate the fall of the Abbasid empire.



The vastness of the empire

The gradual decline of the Abbasid Caliphate


From the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus and from the Caspian Sea to the Nile, the Khilafah was spread today. Historian Bernard Lois called the Abbasid Empire a huge empire. It is. Many rulers did not have the ability to rule a huge empire. In addition, due to lack of improved communication, the central government in the remote areas became very weak

The rule of law has become much weaker. As a result of which rebellion, chaos gradually went out of the control of the rulers. Which later contributes to the fall. 

Surendranath Bandopadhyay and many others along with Indian Association and India League Established

The Adopting next year's program for political progress


Indifference to the military

The Muslim empire that was established in Asia, Europe and Africa with the help of a single Arab force formed during the Umayyad caliphate, was damaged by the Arab multinational forces. The Abbasids weakened it by forming armies on the basis of race and caste. Besides, due to the negligence of the rulers towards this department, the soldiers lost their heroism and military skills. As a result, they are unable to resist the onslaught.


Ethnic animosity: Ethnic divisions are rampant in the Abbasid caliphate. Ethnic animosity between the Himalayan-Mudarians, Persians, Turks, Semites and Barbarians, and sectarian animosity and enmity between Arabs and non-Arabs, Muslims and non-Muslims. The alarming rise weakens the Abbasi base. 


Activities of religious communities


Emergence of Shia-Sunni antagonism, Mutajila, Ismaili, Daylami, Karamatia, Asharia, Jindik, Sarveshvavadi, Batini, Fatemi, Guptaghatak etc. during the rule of Abbasi and their. Separatist activities hastened the fall of the Abbasids. 

The Incidents of the Indus Expedition Hajjaj bin Yusuf

The Movement on the streets (1948)


The moral decline of the caliphs

The moral decline of the late caliphs of the Abbasid Empire is due to their downfall. Responsible. Because they were so addicted to alcohol, women, music, and luxurious living. No one gets a chance to think about the welfare of the state. 


The arrogance of the Turkish army

Abbasid Caliph al-Mutasim (the son of a Turkish slave) formed a Turkish army with ruthless and barbaric Turkish youths and gave them too much power. Even with their blessings, the rulers are unable to govern. The life of the Arabs and Persians in Baghdad became unbearable due to the oppression of these forces. Historian P. K. Hitti said, "Al Mansur's 'city of peace' became a city of turmoil." This force became the cause of the downfall of the Abbasids. 



The activities of the Buaids and the Seljuks

With the help of the Buaids, the Abbasid Caliph Mustaqafi got rid of the Turks, but their fortunes did not change. Similarly, Caliph al-Qayyim Billah prayed for the help of the Seljuks to expel the Buaids. But this time too the caliphs became a pawn in the hands of the Seljuks. Buaid o. The conflict and arrogance of the Seljuks contributed to the collapse of the Abbasid Empire.


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