The Incidents of the Indus Expedition Hajjaj bin Yusuf

Incidents of the Indus Expedition Hajjaj bin Yusuf

The Incidents of the Indus Expedition Hajjaj bin Yusuf


The ruler of the East, sent the Indus Expedition with the permission of the Caliph. But two successive expeditions led by Obaidullah and Budayel ended in failure. Hajjaj then sent an army of 6,000 camels, 8,000 Syrian cavalry and 3,000 carrying animals to the Indus in 612 AD under the leadership of his 18-year-old son-in-law and brother Muhammad bin Qasim. At first he attacked Debal, the capital of King Dahir, and captured Nirun and Sihwan almost without hindrance. Then in 612 AD a battle took place between the two forces at a place called Rawar. King Dahir was defeated and killed in a fierce battle. Dahir's wife Ranibai Jawahar sacrificed herself to keep the vows. Multan is also Muslim under the leadership of Muhammad. Dominance is established. Thus the whole of Sindh and Multan came under the banner of Islam. Dr. Ishwari Prasad aga, "The story of Muhammad bin Qasim's invasion of Sindh is one of the romances of history."

The Conquest of Sindh The results of the conquest of Sindh by the Arabs were far-reaching. Below are the political, social and religious consequences of the Arab conquest of Sindh


Religious Consequences: Although this campaign was politically unsuccessful, the Arab conquest of the Indus was religious and immeasurable. The conquest of the Indus resulted in an Arab pilgrimage with the Arab armies and Arab merchants.

The way to the Pak-Indian subcontinent was facilitated for the propagation of the religion of the saints. They work tirelessly for Islam in this country. Well established. The Arab Muslims were the first to establish a mosque in Debal (known as the Mosque of Bhalla). By Indian architecture was born when Muslim architecture came in contact with ancient Indian architecture. 

The most notable event conquest of North Africa

The gradual decline of the Abbasid Caliphate


Social and cultural consequences

The most important significance of the Arab conquest of the Indus was observed in the social and cultural spheres. As a result of Muslim conquest, Hindu-Muslim harmony was created in India and social death. A change of heart occurs. At the same time, the Muslim world and India fell into a commercial and cultural space. Rose. The influence of Arabic on Sindhi language is particularly noticeable. The Arabs were the first to acquire advanced knowledge of advanced Indian philosophy, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, etc. Later Al Biruni, Al Mapar Sanskrit. Educated, he practiced Hindu culture. Thus, although the political significance of the conquest of Sindh was less, its social, religious, economic and cultural significance was far-reaching.


Al-Walid's Achievements of Al-Walid Best Creator

The Incidents of the Indus Expedition Hajjaj bin Yusuf

Al-Walid was an architect patron. During his reign he built numerous palaces, buildings, monuments and mosques in the Umayyad Empire. The mosques of Mecca-Medina are spacious, well-decorated and famous in Damascus. Jumma gained fame by building a mosque. 


Patron of art and literature: He was a generous patron of art and literature. Khalifa himself was a poet and poet. He also had an outstanding interest in Arabic music. Poet Farajdak was his meeting poet. During the reign of Al-Walid, Kufa and Basra became centers of knowledge-science and Qur'an-Hadith discussion. During his time a strange scientific clock was also discovered. Many famous artists, writers and musicians graced his court. At that time a paper factory was established in Makkah and a paper from linen in Spain Maom b ar oleo.

The caliphs of Rashedin in Khulafa are Ganatani

The Resurrection of the Himalayas and Mudarians

The Movement on the streets (1948)


A bote Naval development Khalifa 

Al-Walid improved the navy as well as the ground forces. She is his. He divided the navy into five divisions. The first part is in Syria, the second part is in Tunisia, the third part is in Alexandria, the fourth part is in Babylon, and the fifth part is guarded by Raman for the invasion, which is the security of the empire. Assists in the conquest.


Cairo City: Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The name originates from the Arabic word al-kahirah, which means conqueror. At the top of the Nile delta. The location of this city. On the other side of the river was Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt. The Arab Muslims occupied the whole of Egypt in 640 AD in a bloody war with the Ramans. After the establishment of Muslim rule in Egypt, the Arab general Amr Ibn al-As established a military base around 641 AD. The city called Al-Fustat is where Cairo stands today.

Over the next few centuries, the city developed and at one stage became an important port city. Towards the end of the year, another Muslim group called 'Fatimi' came to Egypt. Al | He established another city near Fustat, which was called Al-Mansuriyah. Where al-Fustat was unprotected, al-Mansuriyah was surrounded by square, protected walls. Later it was called Al-Qahirah or Qaira. The Fatimids ruled Egypt and maintained it for almost two centuries. At this time Cairo became the capital of Egypt. Al-Fustat and Al-Qahirah stood side by side until 118 AD. The Christian Crusaders then attacked the area. At this time they were burned unprotected to defeat them. Al-Fustat is a city, but Al-Qahirah survives. An army from Syria defeated the Crusaders in battle, and its commander, Saladin Ayubi, took control of Egypt. The beginning is during the 'IUB' regime. 13th In the century, the Turkish army named Mamluk defeated them and occupied Egypt. From 1280 to 1518. Under the Mamluk rule, Kaira made tremendous progress. Al-Azhar University in Cairo became famous as a center of learning in the Muslim world.



Obaidullah al-Mahdi

known as a descendant of Bibi Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), established a caliphate in North Africa and Egypt in 909 AD over the ruins of the Aglabi dynasty as a rival to the Abbasid caliphate; Which is known as the Fatimid Caliphate. Obaidullah claims to be the descendant of Ismail and Husain bin Ali and through them the descendants of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his daughter Bibi Fatima (peace be upon him). For this reason his established caliphate was named 'Fatimi Caliphate'. The greatest of the 14 rulers of this dynasty. There were Al-Muiz and Al-Aziz. During the time of Al-Hakim, one of the rulers of this dynasty, great progress was made in science and art and culture. During the reign of Caliph al-Mu'izz, peace prevailed throughout the empire; Even in his time there was a great development in science and art. Darul Hikma, Al-Azhar Mosque and University are the greatest achievements of this period. In 1161, the last ruler of the dynasty, Al-Azid, was defeated by Ghazi Salauddin and the Ayyubid dynasty was established. This chapter discusses the Fatimid movement, the Fatimid caliphate, the Fatimid caliphate, the decline and fall of the Fatimids, and the development of North African civilization and culture.

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