The most notable event conquest of North Africa

The most notable event of Muawiyah's rule was the conquest of North Africa

The most notable event conquest of North Africa

Military Expeditions As Muawiyah has succeeded in taking power and bringing stability to the state, so he has succeeded in conquering the state. Done. Professor P. K. Hitti said, "Muawiyah's reign witnessed not only the consolidation but the extension of the territories of Caliphate." That is, "during the reign of Muawiyah, the Muslim empire was not only strengthened and consolidated, but also its territorial boundaries were expanded."


Muawiyah's Conquest of North Africa/Western Conquest

At that time, the Arabs used to call the Nile Valley of Nim as 'Egypt', modern Libya and Tunisia as 'Africa' and the vast area between present day Algeria and Morocco as 'Al-Maghrib'. During the reign of Caliph Omar, Egypt was first conquered by the Muslim forces and they started entering Africa. During the reign of Hazrat Osman (ra) the Arab armies advanced as far as Baqa, and the Byzantine Emperor Gregory, not far from the ancient Carthage, was defeated by the Muslims and promised their annual tribute. The Muslims then returned to their homeland with six armies at Barka and Jabili. But the Ramans recaptured the area and began to persecute the Barkars. As a result, the Ba'athists sought the help of Amr, the ruler of Egypt. After informing the Caliph, he sent Muslim Alexander Okaba bin Nafi to Africa with 10,000 troops. Okaba bin Nafi overcame all obstacles and brought the country back under Arab rule. In 60 AD, Okaba founded a famous city in southern Tunisia called Kairayan; Which later became the capital of Africa. As it moves west, the Atlantic Ocean slows it down. P.K. Hitti said, "Uqbah, who is said by tradilions to have advanced until the waves of the Atlantic stopped his horse, He didn't stop until then. " As a result, Okaba lamented, "O Allah, if this vast sea had not been a hindrance to me today, I could have conquered more lands and proclaimed the glory of your religion and name." He was killed in a joint attack by the Raemans, and as a result, Kairayan was recaptured by the barbarians.





Expeditions to the East

The most notable event conquest of North Africa

Muawiyah also had considerable success in expanding the state in the East. Muawiyah forced the Muslims to pay taxes when the tribes refrained from paying taxes in the conquered border areas of Persia and Afghanistan. He also suppressed a similar revolt in Herat in 62 AD. Two years later, he conquered Kabul, Ghazni, Balkh, Kandahar and other areas. Bukhara was conquered by one of the sons of Ziad in 64 AD and Samarkand and Tirmiz in 7 AD. The Muslim army led by Muhallab, son of Abu Sufra, advanced to the banks of the river Indus in 65 AD, but the Muslims did not have much success in this expedition. Thus Muslim. The forces occupied from Samarkand and Bukhar


Naval expedition against Constantinople

Caliph Muawiyah Armenian Ramans?

After defeating them completely, they occupied Armenia in 164 AD and established a stronghold at Accra. 13 Fifteen, In 69 AD, naval and ground forces fell in love with the Greek capital, Constantinople, from Muawiyah and Patashraya Law sent troops. Muawiyah's son Yazid took part in the expedition. Imam Hussein also served as one of the commanders of this war? The Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) hint to the Arabs to conquer this city is the root cause of this campaign. But in the end the operation of the Muslim forces was successful due to lack of food, epidemic, illness of Yazid etc. A few years later, a second naval expedition was sent by Muawiyah. The expedition lasted for seven years (64-60 AD), which is why it is called the 'Seven Years' War'. Muawiyah's campaign also failed. Only the Sajikas near Constantinople were captured by the Muslims.

 


Sahib Kalamun Dafik: The responsibilities of the Military Department, Foreign Affairs and Judiciary are vested in this office. Was. 

Dai Al Dayat: Fatimi propaganda and market inspection through mosques and madrasas was the work of this department. 

Zaib Sahib Al Bar: He used to greet and take care of the royal guests. 

Afsar Kharaj: Collection of Kharaj was the work of this department. 

Kararul Hujra: It was the responsibility of this department to pay the salary. 

Judiciary: In the early stages of the Fatimid caliphate, the caliphs looked after the law and the judiciary. Religious preachers were called and they were established as jurists. Abu Hanifa bin Naeman was a successful lawyer. He went to Egypt with Muiz. Time to conquer Egypt according to the previous agreement



Although Kazi Numan was made the chief kazi in honor of Nagita, the caliph was in fact the chief. Numan I. Lawn was a proponent of the Sunni sect's proprietary law, as was customary in North Africa and Egypt. Gatemi was adopted into the caliphate. Kazi Numan was a leading writer on law and history. In a compilation called Majalis. Numan has a collection of 600 lectures in 6 volumes. He formed the Court of the Mazalim. Apart from the Chief Justice, Muhtasib was also in charge. Muhtasib was the magistrate and weight of the capital. Guard of measure, coordinator of ethics, and coordinator of the police and judiciary. 

The Incidents of the Indus Expedition Hajjaj bin Yusuf

The Movement on the streets (1948)


Financial Management

Al-Mu'izz, after ascending the throne, concentrated on the development of the empire's financial system. The early Fatimid caliphs oversaw the finances themselves. During the time of Al-Mu'izz, Yakub bin Killis, a deserving man, was appointed to the Fatimid Ministry of Finance. Jacob was given charge of the financial administration of North Africa. He improved the situation by making many reforms in financial management. Muiz brought him with him on his arrival in Egypt. Yakub bin Killis oversaw the prosperity of the Fatimid Caliphate, huge profits from trade and commerce, and huge expenditures in the public works sector. He introduced new currency instead of Abbasid currency. At the beginning of the Fatimid caliphate, the ministers used to do the work of the ministers. When Jawahar joined the Fatemi administration. In addition to performing military duties, he also worked as a secretary. Forat was then appointed to the post, who was a skilled administrator. After the Euphrates, Jacob bin Killis was appointed to the post. As a result of these steps taken, the revenue of the state increased manifold. The city of Fustat collects 50,000 to 120,000 dinars a day in taxes. 

Police (Sahib Al Surata): There were two types of police system in Egypt - military and civilian. The Fatimid rulers supported this arrangement. That is why Ismailis were appointed to the police administration. 

Patronage of knowledge-science: The patronage of Al-Muiz in the practice of knowledge-science is unforgettable. He himself derived his origin in linguistics. With his encouragement, many wise men increased the status of the court. His chief physician, Musa bin al-Ghazal of the Jewish community, was one of the best herbalists in the world at the time. During his reign, Saeed bin Batrik, a Coptic priest from Alexandria, translated many books from Arabic into Latin. 

Patron of art: He established beautiful buildings, palaces and religious institutions in different parts of the state. Among the palaces he built, Fasr-ul-Muiji on the east end of Cairo and Fasrul-Bahar on the west end of Cairo are particularly noteworthy. He was not only a patron of art, he was a celebrity.


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